Track 01: Neurodegenerative Disease
Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a variety of conditions which primarily affect the neurons within the human brain. Neurodegenerative diseases represent a serious threat to human health.
Neurons are the elementary unit of the nervous system which incorporates the brain and spinal cord. Neurons cannot reproduce or replace themselves, so once they get damaged or die then they cannot be replaced by the body.
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that end in progressive degeneration and / or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement, mental functioning and affect an individual's ability to maneuver, speak and breathe.
Track 02: Ataxia
Ataxia means without coordination. People with this neurological disorder lose muscle control in their arms and legs. This may cause deficiency of balance, coordination, and trouble walking. Ataxia could have an affect on the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech, and even eye movements.
Persistent ataxia usually happens due to the damage in the part of our brain that controls muscle coordination (cerebellum). Many conditions can cause ataxia, including alcohol consumption, certain medication, stroke, tumor, cerebral palsy, brain degeneration and multiple sclerosis.
Treatment for ataxia depends on its cause. Adaptive devices, such as walkers or canes, might help you maintain your independence. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy and regular aerobic exercise also might help.
Track 03: Dementia
Dementia isn't a particular disease, it's a bunch of conditions characterized by impairment of a minimum of 2 brain functions, like amnesia and judgment, it happens typically once the brain get injured or the other diseases. A diagnosis of dementia requires an amendment from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater psychological failure than what is caused by traditional aging. Several diseases and harmness to the brain, such as a stroke, can give rise to dementia. But the most common cause is Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder.
Track 04: Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), likewise referred to just as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative illness that typically begins gradually and get serious over time. It is the reason for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia. The most widely recognized early side effect is trouble in recollecting recent event short-term memory loss. As the disease getting worse, indications can incorporate issues with language, disorientation (counting effectively getting lost), mood swings, and loss of inspiration, not overseeing self-care, and conduct issues. As an individual's condition decreases, they frequently pull back from family and society. Slowly, bodily function is lost, at last leading to death.
Track 05: Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second common most neurodegenerative disease. It generally manifest as bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor and posture instability. It is primarily characterized by death of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra, a vicinity of the mesencephalon. Notably, alpha-synuclein-ubiquitin complexes and aggregates are perceived to accumulate in Lewy bodies inside affected neurons. It is thought that deficiency in protein transport machinery and regulation might play a vital role in this disease mechanism. Impaired nerve fiber transport of alpha-synuclein may also lead to its accumulation in Lewy bodies. Membrane injury by alpha-synuclein could be an another Parkinson's disease mechanism.
Track 06: Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare chromosome dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused is caused by polyglutamine tract enlargement in the huntingtin gene, resulting in the mutant huntingtin gene (HTT). It is characterized by loss of medium spiny neurons and astrogliosis. The primary brain region to be substantially affected is the striate body, followed by degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortices. The striatum's subthalamic nuclei send control signals to the Globus Pallidus that starts and modulates motion.
Track 07: Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic enervating demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by an immunological attack resulting in the progressive loss of myelin sheath on neuronal axons. The resultant decrease in the speed of signal transduction leads to a loss of functionality that includes both cognitive and motor impairment depending on the location of the lesion.
The progression of multiple sclerosis occurs due to episodes of increasing inflammation, which is proposed to be due to the release of antigens such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, and proteolipid protein, causing an autoimmune response. Multiple sclerosis presents itself as a spectrum based on the degree of inflammation; a majority of patients suffer from early relapsing and remitting episodes of neuronal deterioration following a period of recovery.
Track 08: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) is a disease in which motor neurons are particularly battered for retrogression. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that negatively impacts the upper motor neurons (UMNs) and lower motor neurons (LMNs).
It is diagnosed by skeletal muscle fragility that progresses gradually. Early diagnosis of ALS is difficult than the other neurodegenerative diseases as there are no highly effective means of determining its early onset. Currently, there is research being done relating to the diagnosis of ALS through Upper Motor Neuron tests.
Track 09: Prion Diseases
Prions are malfunctioning proteins with the ability to transmit their misfolded shape onto normal variants of the same protein. They characterize several lethal and infective neurodegenerative diseases in humans and many other animals.
Prions cause neurodegenerative disease by accumulating extra cellular within the central nervous system to form plaquette known as amyloids, which disrupt the normal tissue shape. This disruption is characterized by "holes" in the tissue with resultant spongy architecture due to the vacuole formation in the neurons.
While the incubation period for prion diseases is relatively long about 5 to 20 years, once symptoms appear the disease progresses rapidly, leading to brain damage and death.
Track 10: Batten disease
Batten disease is a rare and lethal receding neurodegenerative disorder that begins in childhood. Batten disease is the common term for a group of lysosomal storage disorders known as Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) – each caused by a specific gene mutation, of which there are thirteen. Since Batten disease is quite rare, its worldwide prevalence is about 1 in every 100,000 live births. It typically manifest between the ages group of 4 to 7 year. Batten disease is characterized by motor impairment, epilepsy, dementia, vision loss, and shortened lifespan. A loss of vision is the first sign of Batten disease.
Batten disease diagnosis depends on a conflation of many criteria: clinical signs and symptoms, evaluations of the eye, electroencephalograms (EEG), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results.
Track 11: Alzheimer’s disease Diagnosis
Alzheimer's disease is generally diagnosed based upon the person's medical history, history from relatives, and behavioral observations. The presence of characteristic neurological and neuropsychological option and the absence of other conditions support the diagnosis. Advanced medical imaging with Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET), can be accustomed to help in excluding other cerebral pathology or subtypes of dementia.
Track 12: Alzheimer’s disease Imaging
Doctor and scientists look into the brain’s grey matter while investigating about Alzheimer’s disease. A recent study, found that degenerating white matter in the brain could be an early indicator of disease. A study was published in Radiology which determines that white matter plays an important role in how the disease incurs and progresses. It can also be characterized by contraction of brain tissues due to neurons loss.
Track 13: Insulin Resistance on the development of Alzheimer’s disease
Convincing presymptomatic and clinical confirmation fortifies a pathophysiological association between Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. Reformed digestion, aggravation, and insulin resistance are key neurotic components of the two conditions. For a long time, it was considered that the cerebrum was unsympathetic to insulin, however it is presently acknowledged that this hormone has crucial neuromodulator capacities, integrating parts in learning and memory, which are enervated in Alzheimer's Disease. Despite that the sub-atomic components representing cerebrum insulin resistance in Alzheimer have remained complicated.
Track 14: Alzheimer’s disease and Type 2 Diabetes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are extremely dominating developing related disease related with huge somberness and mortality. Few findings in human and animal models have connected T2DM to AD-type dementia. Despite epidemiological association between the T2DM and Alzheimer disease, the interpretational instruments are unclear.
T2DM is also related with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular infection (CVD), and is related with prolonged risk of infarcts and little vessel infection in the brain and various organs. Neuropathological evaluation of posthumous cerebrums demonstrated proof of cerebrovascular disease and no relationship among T2DM and β-amyloid stores or neurofibrillary tangles.
Track 15: Vascular Dementia
Vascular dementia is a common term describing problems with cerebral, planning, judgment, memory and other thought processes caused by brain injury from impaired blood flow in our brain. Vascular dementia can manifest after a stroke blocks in an artery in your brain, but strokes don't always cause vascular dementia. Whether a stroke affects our thought process and cerebral depends on the stroke's severity and location. Vascular dementia can also outcome from other circumstances that damage blood vessels and reduce circulation, depriving your brain of vital oxygen and nutrients.