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18th International Conference on Alzheimer's disease and Dementia , will be organized around the theme “Neurological Advances and Innovations in Alzheimer’s and Dementia Research”
Alzheimers Disease - 2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Alzheimers Disease - 2024
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Imaging techniques play a crucial role in diagnosing and monitoring Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects cognitive functions. These techniques help visualize the changes that occur in the brain as the disease progresses. Some of the most commonly used imaging methods for Alzheimer's disease include:
- Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Functional MRI (fMRI)
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
- Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
- Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
- Amyloid Imaging
- Tau Imaging
Animal models are critical tools in biomedical research, including the field of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Translational medicine refers to the process of taking findings from basic research (often conducted in laboratory settings or animal models) and applying them to develop new treatments or interventions for human diseases. Animal models play a key role in bridging the gap between basic research and clinical applications in translational medicine.
Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects cognitive functions, memory, and behavior. Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease involves a comprehensive assessment that considers various factors, including medical history, clinical symptoms, cognitive testing, and diagnostic imaging. While there is no single definitive test for Alzheimer's disease, a combination of approaches helps medical professionals make an accurate diagnosis.
Alzheimer's Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder causing memory loss and cognitive decline due to protein buildup in the brain. Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic condition marked by insulin resistance, leading to high blood sugar. Some links exist between both conditions, but their distinct impacts on the brain and body differ.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting nerve cells that control muscle movement. Over time, these nerve cells degenerate, leading to muscle weakness, loss of control, and eventually paralysis. The exact cause is unknown, and there is no cure. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.
Ataxia refers to a group of neurological disorders that affect coordination, balance, and movement. It results from damage to the cerebellum or the nervous pathways that control muscle coordination. Symptoms include unsteady gait, tremors, and difficulty with fine motor skills. Ataxia can be hereditary or acquired through conditions like multiple sclerosis or stroke. Treatment aims to manage symptoms and address the underlying cause when possible.
Batten disease, also known as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), is a rare and fatal inherited disorder that affects the nervous system. It primarily impacts children and adolescents, causing a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions. It's characterized by the accumulation of fatty substances (lipofuscins) in nerve cells, leading to vision loss, seizures, and eventually loss of ability to walk, talk, and interact. There is currently no cure, and treatment focuses on managing symptoms and providing supportive care.
People with dementia have multiple psychological deficits that combine each memory shortcoming, which affects their capacity to process new information or evaluate information that has recently become clear, and one or more of the resulting side effects, such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or chief brokenness, to the point where the psychological feature adversely significantly affects social or movement functioning with a significant decline in past abilities.
Dementia is an umbrella term used to describe a group of cognitive disorders that cause a gradual and progressive decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, thinking, reasoning, and communication skills. It's not a specific disease itself but rather a set of symptoms associated with various underlying conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions like vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia also fall under this category. Symptoms of dementia vary based on the specific underlying cause but often include memory loss, confusion, difficulty with language, impaired judgment, and changes in behavior and mood.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a rare form of dementia that primarily affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in behavior, personality, and language abilities. It tends to occur earlier in life than other forms of dementia, often striking individuals in their 40s and 50s.
FTD is characterized by progressive changes in social behavior, emotional regulation, and language skills. There are three main subtypes:
- Behavioral Variant FTD
- Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (svPPA)
- Non-fluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (nfvPPA)
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurological disorder primarily affecting memory, thinking, and behavior. It's the most common cause of dementia, characterized by the buildup of abnormal protein plaques and tangles in the brain. This leads to nerve cell dysfunction, memory loss, cognitive decline, and changes in behavior. There is currently no cure, but treatments aim to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Geriatrics is the medical specialty focused on the health and care of elderly individuals. It addresses the unique medical, social, and emotional needs that come with aging. Geriatric medicine aims to enhance the quality of life for older adults and promote healthy aging through preventive measures, managing chronic illnesses, and addressing age-related challenges.
Cognitive disorders, on the other hand, refer to a range of conditions that affect cognitive functions like memory, thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving. These disorders become more prevalent with age, and geriatric medicine often deals with their diagnosis and management. Common cognitive disorders in older adults include Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and delirium.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare and inherited neurological disorder that leads to a progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain. It affects movement, cognition, and behavior, causing a wide range of physical and mental symptoms.
HD is caused by a mutation in the HTT gene, leading to the production of abnormal huntingtin protein. This protein builds up in the brain, damaging nerve cells, particularly those in the basal ganglia, which plays a crucial role in movement control.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. In MS, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers called myelin, leading to inflammation, damage, and disruption in the transmission of nerve signals. The exact cause of MS is not fully understood, but it's believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The disease can present in various ways, and symptoms can vary widely among individuals. Common symptoms include fatigue, difficulty walking, numbness or weakness in limbs, vision problems, balance and coordination issues, and problems with bladder and bowel function.
Neurophysiology is the branch of physiology that focuses on the study of the functioning and processes of the nervous system. It explores the electrical, chemical, and mechanical aspects of how nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other and how the nervous system coordinates various bodily functions. Neurophysiologists use a combination of techniques, including electrophysiology, imaging, and molecular biology, to investigate how neurons generate and transmit electrical signals, how synapses work, and how neural networks process information. This field plays a critical role in understanding brain function, neurological disorders, and the underlying mechanisms of sensory perception, motor control, memory, and other cognitive processes.
Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration and dysfunction of nerve cells (neurons) in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) or peripheral nervous system. These diseases result in the gradual loss of neurological function over time. Common neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS).
Neurological disorders are a broad category of medical conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These disorders can arise from various causes, including genetic factors, infections, autoimmune responses, trauma, and degenerative processes. Neurological disorders can impact sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, often leading to a range of symptoms and impairments.
Examples of neurological disorders include:
- Neurodegenerative Diseases
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Peripheral Neuropathy
- Cerebral Palsy
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that primarily affects movement and can lead to various cognitive and behavioral changes. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing nerve cells in the brain, particularly in a region called the substantia nigra. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease include tremors (shaking), rigidity (stiffness), bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (balance problems). These motor symptoms often develop gradually and can lead to difficulties with daily activities. Additionally, some individuals with Parkinson's may experience non-motor symptoms such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment.
Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of rare and fatal neurological disorders that affect humans and animals. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal proteins called prions in the brain, which lead to the degeneration of nerve cells and the development of sponge-like holes in brain tissue. Unlike most diseases, prion diseases can spread by transmitting misfolded prion proteins from one individual to another, either through contaminated tissues or genetic mutations. This unique ability to self-propagate makes prion diseases particularly challenging to treat and control.
Space neuroscience is a scientific field that studies the effects of space travel on the nervous system and brain function. As humans venture into space for extended periods, it's crucial to understand how the space environment, characterized by microgravity, radiation, and other factors, influences neurological health and cognitive performance. This field investigates various aspects, including:
Neuroplasticity: How the brain adapts and reorganizes in response to changes in sensory input and motor function experienced in microgravity.
Cognitive Performance: How space travel affects cognitive processes like attention, memory, problem-solving, and decision-making.
Sensorimotor Changes: The impact of altered sensory cues and reduced gravity on spatial orientation, balance, and movement control.
Psychological Factors: How isolation, confinement, and prolonged space missions affect mental health and psychological well-being.
Radiation Effects: The potential impact of space radiation on brain tissue and neurological function.
Vascular dementia is a type of dementia that occurs when there is damage to the brain's blood vessels, resulting in impaired blood flow and oxygen supply to brain tissue. This damage can lead to cognitive decline and a variety of neurological symptoms. Vascular dementia is often caused by conditions that affect blood vessels, such as stroke, atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of arteries), or small vessel disease. The severity of symptoms can vary based on the extent and location of the damage in the brain.
Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience periods of intense emotional states, including manic episodes of elevated mood, energy, and impulsivity, as well as depressive episodes marked by low mood, loss of interest, and feelings of hopelessness. There are several types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder. Genetic factors, brain chemistry imbalances, and environmental factors can contribute to its development. Medications, therapy, and lifestyle adjustments are used to manage symptoms and stabilize mood.
Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder that affects thinking, emotions, and behavior. It often involves disruptions in perception, thoughts, and social interactions. People with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (false sensory perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs), along with disorganized thinking and speech. Social withdrawal, emotional flatness, and impaired cognitive function are common. Genetic predisposition, neurochemical imbalances, and environmental factors play roles in its onset. Treatment typically includes antipsychotic medications, therapy, and psychosocial support.
Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in understanding the complex interplay between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to mental health and well-being. Psychiatry covers a wide range of conditions, including mood disorders (depression, bipolar disorder), anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders (schizophrenia), personality disorders, substance use disorders, and more.
Neurological infections are infections that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These infections can result from various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Neurological infections can cause a wide range of symptoms and complications, depending on the specific pathogen involved and the area of the nervous system affected.
Examples of neurological infections include:
- Brain Abscess
- Cerebral Toxoplasmosis
- Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
- Lyme Neuroborreliosis
A brain injury, also known as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurs when there is physical damage to the brain as a result of a sudden impact, jolt, or blow to the head. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on an individual's physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning.
There are two main types of brain injuries:
- Closed Head Injury
- Penetrating Head Injury
Symptoms of a brain injury can vary depending on the severity and location of the damage. Mild injuries might cause temporary confusion, headache, and dizziness, while more severe injuries can lead to loss of consciousness, memory loss, cognitive impairments, paralysis, or even coma.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology or psychobiology, is a scientific field that explores the relationship between the brain, nervous system, and behavior. It seeks to understand how biological processes in the brain and body influence human and animal behavior, emotions, cognition, and mental processes.
Neurosurgery is a medical specialty that focuses on the surgical treatment of disorders affecting the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Neurosurgeons are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage a wide range of neurological conditions that may require surgical intervention.
Key aspects of neurosurgery include:
- Brain Surgery
- Spine Surgery
- Peripheral Nerve Surgery
- Functional Neurosurgery
- Vascular Neurosurgery
Spine surgery is a subset of neurosurgery that specifically focuses on conditions affecting the spine. It involves procedures to treat various spinal disorders, including:
- Spinal Fusion
- Scoliosis Surgery
Pediatric neurology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of neurological disorders in children, from birth to adolescence. Pediatric neurologists are trained to address a wide range of neurological conditions that affect the developing nervous system of children.
Molecular Genetics: Molecular genetics focuses on the structure, function, and regulation of genes at the molecular level. It involves studying the DNA sequences, genes, and chromosomes to uncover how genetic information is stored, replicated, and expressed. In the context of neurobiology, molecular genetics explores how specific genes are related to various neurological processes, behaviors, and disorders. Techniques such as DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis, and genome editing are used to investigate the genetic basis of brain development, function, and disease.
Neurobiology: Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system, encompassing its structure, function, development, and plasticity. It examines the intricate network of neurons, synapses, neurotransmitters, and neural circuits that enable communication and information processing within the brain and throughout the body. Neurobiology seeks to uncover the mechanisms underlying various neurological functions, including sensory perception, motor control, memory, learning, and emotions. It also investigates how alterations in these mechanisms can lead to neurological disorders.
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons, or nerve cells, are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells in the brain. This process primarily occurs during prenatal development, but it also continues in certain regions of the brain throughout adulthood. Neurogenesis is a fundamental mechanism that contributes to brain development, learning, memory, and adaptability.
Two main phases of neurogenesis:
- Embryonic Neurogenesis
- Adult Neurogenesis
Clinical and translational neurology is a specialized field within neurology that focuses on bridging the gap between basic neuroscience research and clinical applications. It involves applying scientific discoveries and insights from laboratory research to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and management of neurological disorders in real-world clinical settings.
Ophthalmology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of disorders and diseases related to the eyes and visual system. Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in eye health, vision care, and the prevention and treatment of eye conditions.
Key aspects of ophthalmology include:
- Eye Examinations
- Diagnosis and Treatment
- Visual Neuroscience
- Retina and Optic Nerve
- Pediatric Ophthalmology
- Contact Lenses and Glasses
Neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) are two interdisciplinary fields that intersect in various ways to enhance our understanding of the brain and to develop intelligent computational systems. The relationship between neuroscience and AI is often bidirectional, with neuroscience informing AI algorithms and AI techniques shedding light on brain functions.
Brain pathology and oncology research involve the study of diseases and disorders affecting the brain, particularly focusing on neurological conditions and brain tumors (oncology). These fields aim to understand the underlying causes, mechanisms, progression, and treatment options for brain-related diseases.
Brain stimulation and brain imaging are two important areas of neuroscience that play crucial roles in understanding brain function, mapping neural networks, diagnosing neurological conditions, and developing therapeutic interventions. These fields offer insights into the structure and activity of the brain, as well as ways to modulate its function.